What causes tombstoning?

Introduction to Tombstone PCBs

Tombstoning, also known as Manhattan effect, drawbridging, or Stonehenge effect, is a common defect that can occur during the surface mount assembly process of printed circuit boards (PCBs). It is characterized by one end of a surface mount component, such as a chip resistor or capacitor, lifting off the PCB pad while the other end remains soldered. The lifted component stands up on one end, resembling a tombstone, hence the name “tombstoning.”

Tombstone PCBs can lead to open circuits, intermittent connections, and reduced reliability of the electronic device. Therefore, understanding the causes of tombstoning and implementing preventive measures are crucial for ensuring high-quality PCB assembly.

Factors Contributing to Tombstoning in PCB Assembly

Several factors can contribute to the occurrence of tombstoning during the surface mount assembly process. These factors can be broadly categorized into three main groups: component-related factors, PCB design factors, and assembly process factors.

Component-Related Factors

  1. Component size and shape: Smaller components, such as 0201 or 01005 chip resistors and capacitors, are more prone to tombstoning due to their lightweight and low thermal mass. The small size makes them more susceptible to the forces generated during the soldering process.

  2. Component termination: The type and quality of component termination can influence the occurrence of tombstoning. Components with uneven or poorly coated terminations may have different wetting characteristics, leading to unbalanced forces during soldering.

  3. Component placement: Improper placement of components, such as misalignment or skewed placement, can cause uneven heating and wetting of the component terminations, increasing the risk of tombstoning.

PCB Design Factors

  1. Pad design: The size, shape, and spacing of PCB pads can affect the soldering process and the likelihood of tombstoning. Pads that are too small or too far apart can lead to uneven heating and wetting, while pads with insufficient solder mask clearance can cause solder bridging.

  2. Copper balance: Unequal amounts of copper on the PCB pads can create an imbalance in heat absorption and dissipation, leading to uneven heating and cooling of the component terminations. This can result in tombstoning.

  3. Solder mask design: The solder mask plays a critical role in controlling the flow of solder during the assembly process. Insufficient solder mask clearance or improper solder mask design can cause solder bridging or uneven wetting of the component terminations.

Assembly Process Factors

  1. Reflow profile: The reflow soldering profile, which defines the temperature and duration of the heating and cooling stages, is a critical factor in preventing tombstoning. An improper reflow profile can lead to uneven heating, excessive temperature gradients, or insufficient wetting of the component terminations.

  2. Solder paste: The type, quality, and application of solder paste can affect the soldering process and the occurrence of tombstoning. Solder paste with inappropriate rheology, particle size, or flux activity can result in uneven wetting or insufficient solder volume.

  3. Preheat and cooling rates: Rapid preheating or cooling can create temperature gradients across the PCB and components, leading to uneven expansion and contraction. This can cause stress on the component terminations and increase the risk of tombstoning.

Preventing Tombstone PCBs: Best Practices and Strategies

To minimize the occurrence of tombstoning in PCB assembly, several best practices and strategies can be implemented during the design and assembly stages.

PCB Design Best Practices

  1. Pad design optimization: Ensure that the PCB pads are appropriately sized and shaped to accommodate the component terminations. Follow the recommended pad dimensions and spacing provided by the component manufacturer.

  2. Copper balancing: Balance the amount of copper on the PCB pads to ensure even heat absorption and dissipation. Use thermal relief connections or copper thieving to equalize the copper distribution.

  3. Solder mask design: Provide adequate solder mask clearance around the pads to prevent solder bridging and ensure proper wetting of the component terminations. Follow the solder mask design guidelines recommended by the PCB fabrication and assembly standards.

Assembly Process Optimization

  1. Reflow profile optimization: Develop and optimize the reflow soldering profile based on the specific requirements of the PCB and components. Consider factors such as the thermal mass of the PCB, component size and type, and solder paste characteristics. Aim for a profile that ensures even heating, sufficient wetting, and minimal temperature gradients.

  2. Solder paste selection: Choose a solder paste with appropriate rheology, particle size, and flux activity for the specific application. Consider the component pitch, PCB surface finish, and reflow profile when selecting the solder paste.

  3. Preheat and cooling control: Implement controlled preheat and cooling rates to minimize temperature gradients and stress on the components. Use convection heating or selective heating methods to achieve even temperature distribution across the PCB.

Inspection and Quality Control

  1. Solder paste inspection (SPI): Perform solder paste inspection to ensure proper solder paste deposition and volume. SPI systems can detect insufficient or excessive solder paste, as well as inconsistencies in paste height and alignment.

  2. Automatic optical inspection (AOI): Utilize AOI systems to detect tombstoning and other assembly defects after the reflow soldering process. AOI can identify lifted components, solder bridges, and other anomalies, enabling early detection and correction of issues.

  3. X-ray inspection: For complex or high-density PCB assemblies, X-ray inspection can provide non-destructive analysis of solder joint quality and component alignment. X-ray systems can detect hidden tombstoning defects that may not be visible through optical inspection methods.

Case Studies and Real-World Examples

To further illustrate the impact of tombstoning and the effectiveness of preventive measures, let’s explore some real-world case studies.

Case Study 1: Mobile Phone PCB Assembly

A mobile phone manufacturer experienced frequent tombstoning issues during the assembly of a high-density PCB with numerous small chip components. The tombstoning defects led to open circuits and intermittent connections, resulting in a high rejection rate and increased production costs.

Upon investigation, it was found that the root cause of the tombstoning was an imbalance in the copper distribution on the PCB pads. The uneven copper caused unequal heating and cooling of the component terminations, leading to tombstoning.

To address the issue, the PCB design was modified to incorporate copper balancing techniques, such as thermal relief connections and copper thieving. Additionally, the reflow profile was optimized to ensure even heating and cooling across the PCB.

After implementing these changes, the tombstoning defects were significantly reduced, and the overall assembly yield improved by 95%.

Case Study 2: Automotive Electronics PCB Assembly

An automotive electronics supplier encountered tombstoning issues during the assembly of a safety-critical PCB module. The tombstoning defects posed a significant risk to the reliability and functionality of the electronic system.

The supplier conducted a thorough analysis of the assembly process and identified several contributing factors, including improper solder paste deposition, uneven preheat, and rapid cooling rates.

To mitigate the tombstoning issue, the supplier implemented the following measures:

  1. Upgraded the solder paste printing process to ensure consistent and accurate solder paste deposition.
  2. Optimized the reflow profile to achieve even heating and controlled cooling rates.
  3. Implemented SPI and AOI systems to detect and correct solder paste and assembly defects.

After implementing these improvements, the tombstoning defects were eliminated, and the supplier achieved a defect rate of less than 100 parts per million (ppm).

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

  1. What is tombstoning in PCB assembly?
    Tombstoning is a defect that occurs when one end of a surface mount component lifts off the PCB pad while the other end remains soldered, causing the component to stand up like a tombstone.

  2. What are the main causes of tombstoning?
    The main causes of tombstoning include component-related factors (size, shape, termination), PCB design factors (pad design, copper balance, solder mask), and assembly process factors (reflow profile, solder paste, preheat, and cooling rates).

  3. How can tombstoning be prevented in PCB assembly?
    Tombstoning can be prevented by implementing best practices in PCB design (pad optimization, copper balancing, solder mask design), assembly process optimization (reflow profile, solder paste selection, preheat and cooling control), and inspection and quality control (SPI, AOI, X-ray).

  4. What are the consequences of tombstoning in PCB assembly?
    Tombstoning can lead to open circuits, intermittent connections, and reduced reliability of the electronic device. It can also increase production costs and decrease overall assembly yield.

  5. Can tombstoning be detected after the soldering process?
    Yes, tombstoning can be detected using inspection methods such as automatic optical inspection (AOI) and X-ray inspection. These methods can identify lifted components and other assembly defects, enabling early detection and correction of issues.


Tombstoning is a common defect in PCB assembly that can have significant consequences for the reliability and functionality of electronic devices. By understanding the causes of tombstoning and implementing best practices in PCB design, assembly process optimization, and inspection and quality control, manufacturers can effectively prevent and mitigate tombstoning issues.

As demonstrated in the case studies, a comprehensive approach to tombstoning prevention can lead to significant improvements in assembly yield and product quality. By staying informed about the latest techniques and technologies for tombstoning prevention, PCB assembly professionals can ensure the production of high-quality, reliable electronic products.

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