What is the difference between PCB manufacturing and assembly?

What is PCB manufacturing?

PCB manufacturing is the process of creating the bare printed circuit board, which serves as the foundation for electronic components. The manufacturing process involves several steps, including:

  1. Design: The PCB design is created using specialized software, such as Eagle or Altium Designer.
  2. Material selection: The appropriate substrate material is chosen based on the PCB’s intended application, such as FR-4, Rogers, or Polyimide.
  3. Copper clad lamination: The substrate is laminated with a thin layer of copper on one or both sides.
  4. Drilling: Holes are drilled through the board to accommodate through-hole components and vias.
  5. Patterning: The copper layer is patterned using photolithography and etching to create the desired circuit layout.
  6. Plating: Additional copper is plated onto the board to improve connectivity and protect the exposed copper traces.
  7. Solder mask application: A protective layer of solder mask is applied to the board, exposing only the areas where components will be soldered.
  8. Silkscreen printing: Text and symbols are printed onto the board using silkscreen printing for easy identification of components and orientation.

Types of PCB manufacturing

There are several types of PCB manufacturing, each with its own advantages and applications:

Type Layers Application
Single-sided 1 Simple, low-cost devices
Double-sided 2 More complex devices, better connectivity
Multi-layer 4+ High-density, complex devices, improved EMI/RFI protection
Flexible 1-2 Wearable electronics, compact devices
Rigid-flex Varies Combines rigid and flexible sections for unique applications

What is PCB assembly?

PCB assembly is the process of populating the manufactured PCB with electronic components and creating the final, functional product. The assembly process involves several steps, including:

  1. Component placement: Surface mount (SMT) and through-hole (THT) components are placed onto the PCB using automated pick-and-place machines or manual placement.
  2. Soldering: The components are soldered onto the board using reflow ovens (for SMT components) or wave soldering (for THT components).
  3. Inspection: The assembled PCB is inspected for defects, such as bridging, tombstoning, or insufficient solder.
  4. Testing: The PCB is tested for functionality, ensuring that all components are working correctly and the board performs as intended.
  5. Conformal coating (optional): A protective coating is applied to the board to protect it from environmental factors, such as moisture, dust, or chemicals.

Types of PCB assembly

There are two main types of PCB assembly:

  1. Surface Mount Technology (SMT): Components are placed directly onto the surface of the board and soldered using reflow ovens. SMT allows for smaller components and higher component density.
  2. Through-Hole Technology (THT): Components with wire leads are inserted through holes in the board and soldered on the opposite side using wave soldering. THT is often used for larger components or those subject to mechanical stress.

Differences between PCB manufacturing and assembly

While PCB manufacturing and assembly are both essential processes in the production of electronic devices, they differ in several key aspects:

Aspect PCB Manufacturing PCB Assembly
Focus Creating the bare board Populating the board with components
Equipment Lamination, drilling, etching, plating Pick-and-place machines, soldering equipment
Materials Substrate, copper, solder mask, silkscreen Electronic components, solder paste
Process complexity Moderate to high, depending on the number of layers and features High, requiring precise component placement and soldering
Time Longer lead times, especially for complex designs Shorter lead times, depending on the component availability and assembly complexity
Cost Moderate, influenced by the board size, layers, and features High, influenced by the component cost and assembly complexity

The relationship between PCB manufacturing and assembly

PCB manufacturing and assembly are closely related processes that work together to create the final, functional electronic device. The quality and accuracy of the PCB manufacturing process directly impact the ease and success of the assembly process.

A well-manufactured PCB will have:

  • Accurate dimensions and hole placements
  • Properly etched copper traces
  • Clear and precise solder mask and silkscreen markings

These characteristics ensure that components can be easily and accurately placed and soldered onto the board during assembly. In contrast, a poorly manufactured PCB may lead to issues such as:

  • Difficulty in component placement
  • Poor solder connections
  • Increased risk of defects and failures

Therefore, it is essential to choose a reputable PCB manufacturer and assembler to ensure the best possible quality and performance of the final product.


  1. Q: Can PCB manufacturing and assembly be done by the same company?
    A: Yes, many companies offer both PCB manufacturing and assembly services, providing a one-stop solution for electronic device production.

  2. Q: What are the benefits of using a turnkey PCB assembly service?
    A: Turnkey PCB assembly services handle both the manufacturing and assembly processes, reducing lead times, minimizing communication issues, and ensuring better quality control.

  3. Q: What factors should I consider when choosing a PCB manufacturer and assembler?
    A: When selecting a PCB manufacturer and assembler, consider factors such as experience, capabilities, quality control processes, lead times, pricing, and customer support.

  4. Q: How do I ensure the quality of my PCB manufacturing and assembly?
    A: To ensure quality, work with reputable manufacturers and assemblers, provide clear and detailed design files, and communicate your requirements and expectations effectively. Additionally, consider implementing quality control checks and testing throughout the production process.

  5. Q: What are the challenges in PCB manufacturing and assembly?
    A: Some challenges in PCB manufacturing and assembly include managing lead times, ensuring component availability, maintaining quality control, and staying up-to-date with the latest technologies and techniques. Effective communication and collaboration between the design, manufacturing, and assembly teams can help mitigate these challenges.


PCB manufacturing and assembly are two distinct but interconnected processes that are essential for the production of electronic devices. PCB manufacturing focuses on creating the bare board, while PCB assembly involves populating the board with components and creating the final, functional product.

Understanding the differences between these processes and how they work together is crucial for anyone involved in the design, production, or procurement of electronic devices. By working with experienced and reputable PCB manufacturers and assemblers, and ensuring effective communication and quality control throughout the production process, you can ensure the best possible quality and performance of your final product.